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    John Frederick returned to office, only to implement the supremacy of Sweden, insisting that it retain supreme command until the end of the war.

    With the impending enforcement of the military Major Power of Sweden over the Prince-Archbishopric of Bremen, which was under negotiation at the Treaty of Westphalia , the city of Bremen feared it would fall under Swedish rule too.

    Therefore, the city appealed for an imperial confirmation of its status of imperial immediacy from Gelnhausen Privilege.

    Nevertheless, Sweden, represented by its imperial fief Bremen-Verden , which comprised the secularised prince-bishoprics of Bremen and Verden, did not accept the imperial immediacy of the city of Bremen.

    With this in view, Swedish Bremen-Verden twice waged war on Bremen. In the city of Bremen had imposed de facto rule in an area around Bederkesa and west of it as far as the lower branch of the Weser near Bremerlehe a part of present-day Bremerhaven.

    When in March the city of Bremen started to recruit soldiers in the area of Bederkesa, in order to prepare for further arbitrary acts, Swedish Bremen-Verden enacted the First Bremian War March to July , arguing that it was acting in self-defence.

    But the city agreed to pay tribute and levy taxes in favour of Swedish Bremen-Verden and to cede its possessions around Bederkesa and Bremerlehe, which was why it was later called Lehe.

    In the city gained a seat and a vote in the Imperial Diet, despite sharp protest from Swedish Bremen-Verden. So on 15 November Sweden had to sign the Treaty of Habenhausen , obliging it to destroy the fortresses built close to Bremen and banning Bremen from sending its representative to the Diet of the Lower Saxon Circle.

    From then on no further Swedish attempts were made to capture the city. The harbour of Vegesack became part of the city of Bremen in In , the French — as they retreated — withdrew from Bremen.

    Bremen joined the North German Confederation in and four years later became an autonomous component state of the new-founded German Empire and its successors.

    The first German steamship was manufactured in in the shipyard of Johann Lange. In , Bremen, under Johann Smidt, its mayor at that time, purchased land from the Kingdom of Hanover , to establish the city of Bremerhaven Port of Bremen as an outpost of Bremen because the river Weser was silting up.

    Lloyd was a byword for commercial shipping and is now a part of Hapag-Lloyd. In , the Bremen Cotton Exchange was founded.

    Henrich Focke , Georg Wulf and Werner Naumann founded Focke-Wulf Flugzeugbau AG in Bremen in ; the aircraft construction company as of [update] forms part of Airbus , [ citation needed ] a manufacturer of civil and military aircraft.

    Borgward , an automobile manufacturer , was founded in , and is today part of Daimler AG. In the city became an enclave, part of the American occupation zone surrounded by the British zone.

    In , Martin Mende founded Nordmende , a manufacturer of entertainment electronics. The company existed until OHB-System , a manufacturer of medium-sized space-flight satellites , was founded in The University of Bremen , founded in , is one of 11 institutions classed as an "Elite university" in Germany, and teaches approximately 23, people from countries.

    Bremen lies on both sides of the River Weser , about 60 kilometres 37 miles upstream of its estuary on the North Sea and its transition to the Outer Weser by Bremerhaven.

    The region on the left bank of the Lower Weser, through which the Ochtum flows, is the Weser Marshes, the landscape on its right bank is part of the Elbe-Weser Triangle.

    In terms of area, Bremen is the thirteenth largest city in Germany; and in terms of population the second largest city in northwest Germany after Hamburg and the tenth largest in the whole of Germany see: List of cities in Germany.

    The inner city lies on a Weser dune, which reaches a natural height of The highest natural feature in the city of Bremen is However, periods in which continental air masses predominate may occur at any time of the year and can lead to heat waves in the summer and prolonged periods of frost in the winter.

    The record high temperature was Average temperatures have risen continually over the last decades, leading to a 0. As in most parts of Germany, the year has been the warmest year on record averaging Precipitation is distributed fairly even around the year with a small peak in summer mainly due to convective precipitation, i.

    Snowfall and the period of snow cover are variable; whereas in some years, hardly any snow accumulation occurs, there has recently been a series of unusually snowy winters, peaking in the record year counting 84 days with a snow cover.

    The warmest months in Bremen are June, July, and August, with average high temperatures of Typical of its maritime location, autumn tends to remain mild well into October, while spring arrives later than in the southwestern parts of the country.

    Number of minorities in Bremen by nationality as of 31 December The legislature is elected by the citizens of Bremen every four years. Bremen has a reputation as a Left-wing city.

    This left wing atmosphere largely stems from a transition from an industrial economy to a service economy. The Greens have also been very successful in city elections.

    The state of Bremen , which consists of the city, is governed by a coalition of the Social Democratic Party and The Greens. The current president is Carsten Sieling.

    More contemporary tourist attractions include:. The skyscraper Weser Tower designed by Helmut Jahn. Bremen is the second development centre of the region, after Hamburg.

    It forms part of the production network of Airbus SAS and this is where equipping of the wing units for all widebody Airbus aircraft and the manufacture of small sheet metal parts takes place.

    Structural assembly, including that of metal landing flaps, is another focal point. Within the framework of Airbus A production, assembly of the landing flaps high lift systems is carried out here.

    The pre-final assembly of the fuselage section excluding the cockpit of the AM military transport aircraft takes place before delivery on to Spain.

    More than 3, persons are employed at Airbus Bremen, the second largest Airbus site in Germany. The entire process chain for the high-lift elements is established here, including the project office, technology engineering, flight physics, system engineering, structure development, verification tests, structural assembly, wing equipping and ultimate delivery to the final assembly line.

    In addition, Bremen manufactures sheet metal parts like clips and thrust crests for all Airbus aircraft as part of the Centre of Excellence — Fuselage and Cabin.

    Apart from that there is another link between Bremen and wine: A large number of food producing or trading companies are located in Bremen with their German or European headquarters: It has been in operation since The network lies completely within the area of the Bremen-Lower Saxony Transport Association , whose tariff structure applies.

    Bremen is home to the football team Werder Bremen , who won the German Football Championship for the fourth time and the German Football Cup for the fifth time in , making them only the fourth team in German football history to win the double; the club won the German Football Cup for the sixth time in Only Bayern Munich has won more titles.

    In the final match of the —10 season, Werder Bremen lost to Bayern Munich. The home stadium of SV Werder Bremen is the Weserstadion , a pure football stadium, almost completely surrounded by solar cells.

    It is one of the biggest buildings in Europe delivering alternative energy. With students, [48] the University of Bremen is the largest university in Bremen, and is also home to the international Goethe-Institut and the Fallturm Bremen.

    In , the private Jacobs University Bremen was founded. All major German research foundations maintain institutes in Bremen, with a focus on marine sciences: Bremen is twinned with: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    This article is about the German city. For the German state consisting of Bremen and Bremerhaven, see Bremen state. For other uses, see Bremen disambiguation.

    It has been suggested that this section be split out into another article titled History of Bremen. This section needs expansion. You can help by adding to it.

    Bremen state election, List of people from Bremen and List of mayors of Bremen. List of twin towns and sister cities in Germany.

    Bibliography of the history of Bremen. Statistisches Landesamt Bremen in German. Books on Demand, Oldenburger Jahrbuch , vol. The Edge of the World: Forces of the Hanseatic League: Olbers, Georg Olms Verlag, S.

    Retrieved 4 July The Regions of Germany: A Reference Guide to History and Culture. Retrieved 18 May Mai in Bremen". Retrieved 27 January Retrieved 14 January Katholischer Gemeindeverband in Bremen.

    Archived from the original on 7 January Retrieved 7 January Retrieved 5 January Archived from the original on May 30, Retrieved 20 January Retrieved June 10, For many tournaments the home nations are combined to compete as Great Britain.

    The Great Britain team won the Rugby league World Cup in , and , but England and Wales now compete separately in this tournament and Australia have won every World Cup since except in , when they were upset in the final by New Zealand.

    The Great Britain team is retained for some competitions, such as with Australia and New Zealand in the recently founded Tri-Nations competition, and in test series such as the Ashes against Australia and the Baskerville Shield against New Zealand.

    In , the United Kingdom hosted the Rugby league World Cup for the 5th time, with England and Wales officially serving as joint hosts. Ice hockey is the only team sport to have a United Kingdom-wide league with at least one team from every nation.

    It has a long history in the United Kingdom and it is reasonably well supported, with the larger teams attracting thousands of fans to every game.

    Media support for ice hockey has improved on a national level, although the majority of news is still found on the internet.

    Following this Premier Sports picked up the mantle for a number of seasons. The league currently ranks 12th in Europe.

    Gaelic games such as Gaelic football and hurling are organised on an all-Ireland basis and are highly popular in Northern Ireland, with a smaller presence in Great Britain.

    They are regulated by the Gaelic Athletic Association. Antrim are the only Northern Ireland team in the first tier.

    The female equivalent of hurling is called camogie and is played by teams from Northern Irish and London. Gaelic handball with its roots in Scotland is still played at a competitive level in Northern Ireland.

    Composite rules shinty-hurling is a hybrid sport which was developed to facilitate international matches between shinty players and hurling players.

    Field hockey is the second most popular team recreational sport in the United Kingdom. While hockey receives widespread television coverage during the Olympics, coverage outside that is small, especially relative to its participation level.

    Shinty or camanachd is an amateur sport indigenous to the Scottish Highlands. Although it is mostly restricted to this area it is highly popular within the Highlands, sometimes attracting crowds numbering thousands in what is the most sparsely populated region of the United Kingdom.

    It is administered by the Camanachd Association. Its main trophies are the Camanachd Cup [28] and the Premier Division.

    There are clubs in Edinburgh, Glasgow and London however and it was once played throughout Scotland and England until the early 20th Century.

    Australian rules football is a growing amateur sport in the United Kingdom. The Grand Final is an event that regularly attracts growing audience of up to 5, Great Britain has a national team the British Bulldogs , it regularly competes in international matches and has competed in the Australian Football International Cup since its inception in Exhibition matches are regularly scheduled for The Oval in London, and despite the fact that few Britons know of the sport, the most recent match attracted a record crowd of 18, [2].

    Premier, 1 and 2, with Premier and 1 divided into a North and South conference with Coventry being the Most Southern of the Northern teams while division 2 is further split into 4 conferences, North becoming North Scotland and Carlisle and Central and the South being split into East and West.

    The Championship participants are promoted to the divisions above and the lowest-ranking teams in each division are relegated.

    Previously, many of these teams competed in the BAFL which entered administration in The national team is known as the GB Lions and represents the United Kingdom in international gridiron.

    Despite the minor status of the sport in the United Kingdom, the NFL has played at least one game each season at Wembley Stadium since Wembley has hosted multiple games in each season since , and the series has since expanded to include other locations in London.

    Twickenham began hosting NFL games in , and the primary site for London games will switch from Wembley to the new Tottenham Hotspur stadium once it opens in Once invented in England, bandy has been virtually unknown in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th Century, but this hockey sport played on ice with rules similar to football has been taken up again.

    There are plans to form a national team for the Bandy World Championship. Basketball is a minor sport in the United Kingdom.

    While following an American franchise format rather than using promotion and relegation like most European leagues, the majority of recent additions have come from the English league.

    As with football, the home nations teams were encouraged to work together for the Olympics, while British international basketball teams have not achieved any major successes since then, FIBA officials stated that if they re-entered the European competition after the Olympics as individual nations, they will be treated as unranked newcomers.

    As with American football the NBA have arranged regular season matches in London for several years now, the most recent being a game between the Boston Celtics and Philadelphia 76ers at the O2 Arena , London.

    The idea of a single team or pair of teams relocating to London and Berlin was dismissed as uneconomical due to the distances involved for away fixtures.

    A piece on the web outlet of US sports media giant ESPN explored why British basketball has so far failed to develop players to the degree of countries such as France, Germany and Australia.

    A survey by Sport England found that basketball was the third most-played sport among the 14—25 age group in England, just behind rugby union in numbers—but both sports combined have less than one-third the participation of football.

    Another issue is politically related. The British government provided many sports, including basketball, with major funding in advance of the Olympics.

    The sport also currently lacks private funding, with Amaechi claiming that many British BBL players are not paid living wages.

    Finally, until very recent years, British players were reluctant to develop themselves in the more competitive leagues of continental Europe.

    Motorcycle speedway , usually referred to as speedway, is a motorcycle sport involving four and sometimes up to six riders competing over four anti-clockwise laps of an oval circuit.

    Speedway motorcycles use only one gear and have no brakes and racing takes place on a flat oval track usually consisting of dirt or loosely packed shale.

    The United Kingdom has three domestic leagues, the Elite League. The Speedway Grand Prix is the main world championship for standalone riders with an event taking place in Cardiff each year.

    Rounders is a bat-and-ball base-running game played on a diamond. A maximum of nine players are allowed to field at any time.

    Touch or Touch Rugby is a limited-contact sport variant of rugby football. It is typically played with a mixed-gender team of six three men and three women , with single-gender and age group variants.

    Teams play on a 70m by 50m pitch with rolling substitutions. There are no set pieces e. Scores are made by grounding the ball over the scoreline as in Rugby Union or League; a team is allowed six touches in possession to attempt a score before the ball is turned over to the opposition.

    More than a thousand players across over 40 clubs [37] are registered to play in these competitions. There are also substantial local and regional competitions, many run with the involvement of O2 Touch.

    Athletics does not have a very high profile in Britain on a week-in week-out basis, but it leaps to prominence during major championships.

    The level of attention received by successful British athletes is illustrated by the fact that athletes have won far more BBC Sports Personality of the Year awards than practitioners of any other sport.

    There are also semi-independent athletics associations in each of the home nations. Over the last few decades British athletes have usually won between one and three gold medals at the Olympics; the Games in London saw three British athletes win four golds single golds by Jessica Ennis and Greg Rutherford , and two by Mo Farah.

    However, there remain serious concerns about the depth of the sport in Britain, with the number of club athletes reportedly in decline.

    Two high-profile annual athletics events are the London Marathon and the Great North Run , which is a half marathon.

    The United Kingdom played a key role in the evolution of modern boxing , with the codification of the rules of the sport known as the Queensberry Rules , named after John Douglas, 9th Marquess of Queensberry in Some of the best contemporary British boxers included; super-middleweight champion Joe Calzaghe , featherweight champion Naseem Hamed , and heavyweight champion Lennox Lewis.

    British professional boxing offers some of the largest purses outside the United States to a few elite professional boxers who become nationally known.

    British heavyweight contenders are especially popular, but most British world champions have fought in the middle weight bracket. The governing body of professional boxing is the British Boxing Board of Control.

    It is generally felt that British professional boxing is in decline in the early years of the 21st century. The reasons for this include: Amateur boxing is governed by separate bodies in each home nation.

    At Olympic, World and European events, home nation boxers with the exception of N. Ireland compete under the GB podium squad banner.

    The amateur sport is steadily recovering from a decline that reached a peak in the late s, with dramatic increases in boxer numbers driven by recent GB podium squad success, most notably at the London Olympics.

    Mixed martial arts MMA has come a huge way. The sport was on the verge of being sent into oblivion in the early s but has since clawed its way back and become one of the most popular sports in the USA.

    It is hard to pinpoint the main reason why exactly this has happened. The stereotype of extreme violence that they have been unable to shake off?

    However, things slowly started to change when Michael Bisping came onto the scene and won The Ultimate Fighter 3.

    The 2 winners of The Ultimate Fighter: A Champion Will Be Crowned. Britain had limited success with cycle racing in the 20th century.

    This has changed when the performance director of British Cycling Peter Keen formerly coach of Chris Boardman and later appointed in as performance director with UK Sport obtained lottery funding which helped cycling at both grass roots and at an elite level.

    The first fruits of the programme were harvested in Other successes include Rebecca Romero and Victoria Pendleton. This newfound British success continued with Chris Froome winning four of the next five Tours , , , , followed by Geraint Thomas taking victory in Emma Pooley won the world road time trial championship in Cycle racing is organised by British Cycling , who govern most cycling events in the United Kingdom and organise the national team.

    The success of British Cycling and Team Sky has increased dramatically the popularity of the sport in the UK which has brought in more sponsors into the sport.

    A lot of cyclists take part in the many sportives organized all over the country including the hugely popular Ride London event which.

    Modern competitive golf originated in Scotland. In the early 20th century British golfers were the best in the world, winning nearly all of the US Open championships before World War I.

    American golfers later became dominant, but Britain has continued to produce leading golfers, with an especially strong period in the s and s.

    There are usually more British golfers than others in the top of the Official World Golf Ranking relative to population, that is to say more than a fifth as many.

    In May , fellow Englishman Luke Donald reached the top of the rankings, and by the end of that year became the first golfer in history to top the money lists of both the PGA and European Tours in the same season.

    Golf is the sixth most popular sport, by participation, in the United Kingdom. In international team competition the United Kingdom provides a large part of the European Ryder Cup team, which has beaten the United States team in seven of the last eight events.

    Tennis is yet another sport which originated in the United Kingdom, first originating in the city of Birmingham between and as a more open variant of the historical real tennis , or Royal tennis, often associated with the Tudor monarchy of Henry VIII of England.

    However, it has not flourished there in recent decades: No British woman has won at Wimbledon since Virginia Wade in The governing body of the sport is the Lawn Tennis Association LTA , which invests the vast profits from the tournament in the game in the hope of producing British champions, but a string of revamps of the coaching system have failed to raise the standard of LTA-trained players.

    Great Britain have won the Davis Cup ten times, with their most recent title in being their first since The British leg of the competition is the Rally Great Britain.

    Derek Bell is a five-time 24 Hours of Le Mans winner and one-time winner of the km Silverstone , the major endurance race of the country, formerly part of the World Sportscar Championship and currently part of the FIA World Endurance Championship.

    In the race had become the third Superbike World Championship round in Britain, but since then rounds at Silverstone and Brands Hatch have been dropped.

    In rally raiding , Sam Sunderland became the first British winner of the Dakar Rally when he won the motorcycle classification in Many races are held over the UK hosted by local clubs with about , race entrants in Swimming is the largest participation sport in England according to Sport England It is larger than athletics, cycling and football.

    The swimming organisations of the home countries formed an umbrella organisation called British Swimming in the year British Swimming concentrates on elite swimmers with podium potential.

    Britain sends large teams to all the major international swimming events, and enjoy some successes, but it is not currently a leading swimming nation.

    The sport has a thriving club structure with competition at all levels. The provision of 50 metre pools in the United Kingdom was very poor for a developed country, with just 22 as of early , only two of which conformed to the full Olympic standard.

    There are however far more 25 metre short course pools and other sub Olympic-size competition pools. See List of Olympic size swimming pools in the United Kingdom.

    The number of 50m pools has now increased and there are 9 full Olympic size pools including the London Aquatics Centre pool which is regarded as currently the best pool in the world.

    Other sports with loyal followings include snooker , which is popular with television companies as it fills their schedules at a very low cost, and also attracts good audiences.

    However, its popularity has waned somewhat since , when nearly a third of the British population watched the conclusion of the celebrated Dennis Taylor versus Steve Davis World Championship final even though it ended after midnight.

    There are many amateur leagues set up across the country, featuring team matches between snooker clubs. Table Tennis is, according to Sport England a widely participated physical activity with c participants and a large number of regional clubs enrolled to English Table Tennis Association https: Darts is another British centred sport with an assured place in the attention of the British sporting public.

    Phil Taylor of Stoke has won more World Championships than any other player. Sailing is also a well regarded sport in the United Kingdom.

    It is governed by the RYA , and there are many locations in the United Kingdom where sailing can take place, both inland and coastal. Media coverage tends to be low, but if this were to be increased, some feel that support for the sport would increase.

    The United Kingdom has proved successful in the international sporting arena in rowing. There are many other sports in which Britons compete, sometimes with success, but which do not receive much attention outside a small number of aficionados except during major events such as the Olympics and the Commonwealth Games, or when a British athlete does something extraordinary such as breaking a world record.

    Examples include judo , gliding , modern pentathlon , figure skating and sailing. Thoroughbred racing , which originated under Charles II of England as the "sport of kings", occupies a key place in British sport, probably ranking in the top four or five sports in terms of media coverage.

    There are sixty racecourses in Great Britain with annual racecourse attendance exceeding six million and roughly 13, races being held across Britain and Ireland each year.

    The town of Newmarket is considered the centre of English racing, largely because of the famous Newmarket Racecourse.

    The two forms of horseracing in the United Kingdom are National Hunt , which involves jumping over fences or hurdles, and the more glamorous flat racing.

    National Hunt is a winter sport and flat racing is a summer sport, but the seasons are very long and they overlap.

    Other leading flat races include the 1, Guineas and The Oaks , and these five races are collectively known as the Classics. Apart from the meetings at which the aforementioned races are staged, major flat racing meetings include Royal Ascot , Glorious Goodwood , and the Ebor Festival at York Racecourse.

    The United Kingdom also played a key role in the evolution of three-day eventing and showjumping. Badminton attracts crowds of up to a quarter of a million spectators on cross country day, which is the largest for any paid-entry sports event in Britain.

    The British Olympic Association is responsible for the promotion of the Olympic Movement within the United Kingdom and for the selection, leadership and management of Great Britain and Northern Ireland at every Olympic accredited event.

    By longstanding practice, athletes of Northern Ireland have the option of being part of either the Great Britain or Ireland teams. After the Summer Olympics Great Britain was third in the all-time Summer Olympic medal count ranked by gold medals , although the majority of the medals are accounted for by some very large tallies in the first few Olympic Games.

    British medal tallies for much of the post-war period were generally considered disappointing, but the Summer Olympics marked an upturn and this was sustained at the Summer Olympics when Great Britain finished tenth in the medal table and the where it finished fourth behind only China, the US and Russia.

    This was seen as a great success, and there was a victory parade through the streets of London. This trend continued in the Games in London.

    Great Britain again finished fourth in the total medal table behind the US, China and Russia , but was third in the gold medal count behind the US and China.

    The sports in which the British team has won most medals in recent Summer Olympics include rowing, sailing , cycling and athletics. In addition to the Summer Olympics, London hosted the Games in and Winter sports only play a minor role in British sporting life because the winters are not cold enough for them to be practised out of doors very much.

    Great Britain is not a leading nation at the Winter Olympics , but has had a few successes in sports such as figure skating , curling and bob skeleton.

    A number of athletes represented Great Britain in the freestyle skiing discipline when it debuted at the Winter Olympics. The United Kingdom has played a major role in the development of disability sport.

    It has never finished outside the top five and has been second several times, including the last five games in , , , and The BBC is an enthusiastic promoter of disability sport.

    In the early 20th century the United Kingdom had some of the largest sports facilities in the world, but the level of comfort and amenities they offered would be considered totally unacceptable by modern standards.

    After a long period of decline relative to other developed countries British facilities have made a relative improvement since the s, and this is ongoing.

    British football grounds are almost always football-only facilities in which the spectators are close to the action.

    As of early there are nearly 40 all-seater club grounds in England with a capacity of 25, or more, three in Scotland and two in Wales.

    English cricket grounds are smaller than the largest in some other countries, especially India and Australia , but the best of them have been modernised to a high standard, and two new international grounds have been built in recent years.

    Rugby union and rugby league clubs are generally poorer than their football counterparts. Some clubs have good all seater grounds in the 10,, capacity range; some have older grounds which are still partly terraced, and others play in council -owned joint-use stadia e.

    Some clubs rent stadia from football clubs. In some cases, union and league clubs share grounds; one current example of this phenomenon exists in Salford.

    The United Kingdom has many world class golf courses which can accommodate crowds in the tens of thousands for tournaments.

    The greatest concentration of these is in Scotland. The Open Championship is always played over a links course, the most famous venue being the Old Course at St Andrews on the east coast of Scotland.

    Wentworth Club near London was once the only venue which hosted two European Tour events each season, but it now hosts only one. The provision of athletics stadiums in the United Kingdom is very poor compared to most other developed countries.

    The main reason for this is that it is not considered acceptable to ask football or rugby fans to sit behind an athletics track.

    This means that athletics stadiums have to be separately financed and this can only be done with public funds, which have not been forthcoming on a large scale.

    The largest athletics stadium built in the United Kingdom between Second World War and the s, the 38,capacity City of Manchester Stadium built for the Commonwealth Games , was reconfigured for football-only use after that event.

    Both have since been superseded by the venue now known as London Stadium , which was built as an 80, seater for the Summer Olympics and became the new home of West Ham United F.

    By the time West Ham moved in, the capacity was reduced to 60,, and the track remained in place, with movable seating added to allow optimal configurations for both athletics and football.

    Since the retention of the track was a necessary condition for tenancy, the Olympic Stadium won the right to host the World Championships in Athletics.

    The Alexander Stadium in Birmingham is to be upgraded to a long term capacity of 25, temporarily 50, for the Commonwealth Games. There are 60 horse racecourses in Great Britain, with two more in Northern Ireland the sport is governed on an all-Ireland basis.

    The best of them are world class. Silverstone Circuit , Donington Park and Brands Hatch are the three international motorsport courses.

    There are several outdoor velodromes for track cycle racing in the United Kingdom with Herne Hill in London being the only venue from the Olympics still in operation.

    There are also five indoor velodromes, one in Newport , the 3, seater Manchester Velodrome , part of the National Cycling Centre that serves as the headquarters of British Cycling , as well as the 6, seater arena built as part of the Summer Olympics in London, the 2, seater venue built for the Commonwealth Games in Glasgow and the 1, seater Derby Velodrome which opened in In the United Kingdom there is no indoor sport capable of attracting five-figure attendances on a regular basis, and this restricts the development of large indoor arenas.

    These facilities make most of their income from pop concerts, but they occasionally stage boxing matches and other sporting events.

    It also hosted the Final Four of the continent-wide EuroLeague in basketball. Several smaller arenas hosting ice hockey and basketball are found around the United Kingdom though these generally hold only a few thousand fans.

    Apart from a couple of Oxbridge events, student sport has a very low profile in the United Kingdom. While universities have significant sports facilities, there was no system of sports scholarships, with tuition fees only being introduced in the late 90s.

    However students who are elite standard competitors are eligible for funding from bodies such as UK Sport on the same basis as anyone else.

    The university most focused on sports provision is Loughborough University. Budding professionals in the traditionally working class team sports of football and rugby league rarely go to university.

    Talented youngsters in the more middle class sports of cricket and rugby union are far more likely to attend university, but their sports clubs usually play a greater role in developing their talent than their university coaches.

    Some sports are attempting to adapt to new conditions in which a far higher proportion of British teenagers attend university than in the past, notably cricket, which has established several university centres of excellence.

    Sport is compulsory for all students up to the age of sixteen, but the amount of time devoted to it is often small.

    There are frequent complaints that state sector schools do too little to encourage sport and a healthy lifestyle. Sports culture is stronger in independent schools in the United Kingdom , and these schools contribute disproportionate numbers of elite competitors in almost all sports with the exceptions of football, rugby league, boxing and perhaps athletics.

    In addition to many of the sports already mentioned, popular sports at junior level include netball and rounders , both of which are played almost entirely by girls.

    The leading body for physical education in the United Kingdom is the Association for Physical Education. In , the UK School Games was established by the Youth Sport Trust as an annual sporting competition for elite school age athletes in the United Kingdom, and for was expanded to include nine sports over four days.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Music and performing arts. Flag Coat of arms.

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